Sri Lanka has shown remarkable persistence in low female labor force participation rates—at36 percent from 2015 to 2017, compared with 75 percent for same-aged men—despite overalleconomic growth and poverty reduction over the past decade. The trend stands in contrast to thecountry’s achievements in human capital development that favor women, such as high levels offemale education and low total fertility rates, as well as its status as an upper-middle-incomecountry.This study intends to better understand the puzzle of women’s poor labor market outcomes inSri Lanka. Using nationally representative secondary survey data—as well as primary qualitativeand quantitative research—it tests three hypotheses that would explain gender gaps in labormarket outcomes: (1) household roles and responsibilities, which fall disproportionately onwomen, and the associated sociophysical constraints on women’s mobility; (2) a human capitalmismatch, whereby women are not acquiring the proper skills demanded by job markets; and(3) gender discrimination in job search, hiring, and promotion processes. Further, the analysisprovides a comparison of women’s experience of the labor market between the years leading upto the end of Sri Lanka’s civil war (2006†“09) and the years following the civil war (2010†“15).The study recommends priority areas for addressing the multiple supply- and demand-side factorsto improve women’s labor force participation rates and reduce other gender gaps in labor marketoutcomes. It also offers specific recommendations for improving women’s participation in the fiveprivate sector industries covered by the primary research: commercial agriculture, garments,tourism, information and communication technology, and tea estate work.The findings are intended to influence policy makers, educators, and employment programpractitioners with a stake in helping Sri Lanka achieve its vision of inclusive and sustainable jobcreation and economic growth. The study also aims to contribute to the work of researchinstitutions and civil society in identifying the most effective means of engaging more women—and their untapped potential for labor, innovation, and productivity—in Sri Lanka’s future.